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FORM: 10mg/mL – 30mL bottle.
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YK11 SARM is a selective androgen receptor modulator.
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YK11 is a synthetic steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (steroidal SARM). It is a steroid compound based on 5-α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is a gene-selective and partial agonist of the androgen receptor (AR). YK11 is so far the only SARM that is able to increase the expression of the activin binding protein Follistatin (FST), and right the induction of FST plays a key role in its anabolic effects. YK11 has chemical formula C25H34O6 and molecular mass 430.541 g·mol−1.
This steroidal SARM that has shown to have a high potency compared to other SARMS, however, it also has more androgenic effects than other SARMS. Studies show that YK11 is well tolerated by research subjects at various doses. YK11 is orally bio-available and is able to be suspended or dissolved in specific liquid solutions for research and laboratory applications.
YK11 chemical structure
YK11 has a similar chemical structure to the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from which it is derived, and both hormones YK11 and DHT bind to androgen receptors (AR). However, unlike DHT, this SARM does not induce the physical interaction between the NTD/AF1 and LBD/AF2 (known as the N/C interaction), which is required for full transactivation of the AR. In other words said, this molecule activates AR only partially, without the N/C interaction. Such partial (limited) activation of androgen receptors increases the catabolic a.
However, this SARM also induces the expression of Follistatin (FST), an autocrine glycoprotein that is a potent inhibitor of the effects of Myostatin, a protein that brakes muscle growth. Thus, the resulting potent anabolic effect of this molecule is thought to be primarily due to the induction of expression of Follistatin, which blocks effects of Myostatin. The resulting anabolic activity of this molecule in C2C12 myoblasts is more potent than the anabolic activity of DHT.
YK11 HAS OSTEOGENIC ACTIVITY AND CAN HELP STRENGTHEN BONES
Like many androgens, steroids, and other SARMs, also YK11 has the ability to bind to androgen receptors in bone tissues and increase bone strength. A scientific study published in 2018 showed that the treatment of YK11 accelerated cell proliferation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cells. Further, YK11-treated cells increased osteoblast specific differentiation markers, such as osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin, compared to untreated cells. Elevated levels of activated PKB (protein kinase B) in cells suggest that this molecule activates the Akt / PKB signaling pathway through non-genomic AR signaling. Akt / PKB signaling pathway is a key regulator of androgen-mediated osteoblast differentiation.
Selective androgen receptor modulators are under investigation for an alternative to traditional androgen use. SARMS, like traditional androgens, show promise in promoting muscle growth, increasing bone density, and preventing muscle breakdown in tissues more selectively than androgens such as testosterone.
Traditional androgens such as testosterone and other anabolic and androgenic steroids do not selectively bind to the androgen receptors on muscle and bone. Instead, they bind to other tissues such as prostate for one example. Androgens promote secondary sexual characteristics such as hair growth, deepening of the voice, and other side effects. This makes them less effective overall than SARMS for the desired muscle and bone sparing properties.
Studies have shown that SARMS can promote muscle growth and bone density without the hormonal (androgenic) effects of testosterone. Most SARMS are not structurally similar to traditional androgens. The unique structure of SARMS allow them to target and activate androgen receptors where the therapeutic effect is desired. SARMS activate skeletal muscle androgen receptors and androgen receptors on bones.
Selective androgen receptor modulators are being widely studied by independent researchers, pharmaceutical companies, universities, and other institutions. This due to their specific benefits and favorable side effect profile when compared with traditional androgen therapies. SARMS are not approved for human use. Certain pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are producing clinical research that could be used to provide additional safety and efficacy data for review by the FDA.
THIS PRODUCT IS FOR LABORATORY AND ANALYTICAL PURPOSES ONLY AND HUMAN CONSUMPTION IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.